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  1. Principle: A positive affective state can contribute to learning by encouraging participation, which aids learning.
  • Teaching Practice: Student interact with each other regularly in pair work and in small groups.
  • Teaching Practice: The teacher makes use of humor, fun and games.

Principle: Classroom should be a safe space
  • Teaching Practice: The teacher allows each student to speak if they are comfortable and comments, if any, are positive and constructive.

Principle: Different teaching methods can be used together and made more beneficial than using them alone.
  • Teaching Practice: Alternate behaviorist and task-based teaching methods in each class. Use lessons that use (or take from) theories of SLA
    • Motivation: Making the students want to learn/acquire the language
    • Noticing: Becoming aware of S's speaking
    • Affect: Comfort, ease of the Ss.
    • Vygotsky's ZPD theory: "Zone of Proximal Development" – the difference between what Ss can do alone and what they can do with help.
    • "i + 1": Krashen's Input Hypothesis – if i is what is known, the +1 is the next form/structure/rule to be learned.
    • Monitoring: (Krashen) – Ss checking what they say for errors, once they know the form.

  • Teaching Practice: Address different learner variables (VARK) through different sections (or tasks) as part of one activity

Principle: Students can learn through scaffolding
  • Teaching Practice: Group students of different proficiencies together for certain exercises, for reading, writing and speaking.

Principle: A student's monitor is as useful as teacher feedback
  • Teaching Practice: Allow students to monitor their own contributions, then add general comments later in class.

Principle: The use of different media can aid and facilitate learning
  • Teaching Practice: Make use of printed material as well as electronic/technological material in a class

Principle: There is not one "correct" English, but many Englishes, all of which are as correct as the others.
  • Teaching Practice: Although one may speak one English, exposition of the other Englishes to students would greatly benefit them and prepare them more for the "real world."
    • Use audio/visuals that use other dialects and accents of English as well as the English that the teacher uses regularly

Learning a language is first and foremost a question of learning its grammar; Learning the grammar of the language should be the focus of the language classroom.
  1. I do not fully agree with this statement as it is written because I think that although grammar is a crucial aspect of a language, I don't think it should be either the focus nor the main area taught. I would rewrite this statement as "Grammar is an important part of language proficiency, and as such should be taught in a way that reflects this." (or something similar).
  2. I would put emphasis on grammar in some lessons (but not all) and give students room to practice grammar.

It is the language teacher’s responsibility to know as much as possible about the language itself.
  1. I agree with this statement, mainly because I think it's not easy to teach something you don't know fully.
  2. I would make sure that I "do my homework" – i.e. read about the English language and understand aspects well enough to explain them to students.

Grammar is best learned deductively - that is, by studying rules and then applying the rules to examples and in activities.
  1. This can be true, but like many things depends on the student. This method may be best for some, but may not have any effect on others.
  2. I would make sure that I have enough of both "rule-first" and "example-first" lessons to account for all learning styles.

Students do not need to be cognitively engaged to learn grammar. They just need to memorize it.
  1. NO! Like with other things, memorization is inadequate for really learning something.
  2. Students should be thinking about the rules that they are applying and occasionally be challenged to ensure cognitive engagement.

Language should always be studied in its typical contexts of use, rather than in isolation.
  1. If applicable, this is a good ideology.
  2. Dialogue, real-life examples, etc.

What does it mean to know a word?
  • Knowing a word means knowing and understanding the denotations and connotations of the word, along with the nuances associated with it. This includes when, by whom and how the word should be used.
"Up the ante"
  • Every so often, once T notices that Ss have a grasp of the form/structure/rule being taught, make the exercise a little more challenging. Make Ss accomplish tasks faster/with more content/more challenging rules...