Comparative Chart


Pertinent Concerns
Plato
Aristotle
Machiavelli
Hobbes
Locke
Rousseau
Tocqueville
Marx
Nietzsche
Labor
division of labor (83);
functional difference;
self-mastery
natural slavery (113); functional difference
work on "appearances" (182); use an economy of violence (178 & 181).
follow rules (214);only fruitful under a common power (208);





Property
no private property (91);
property limited to "what you can carry";
"moderate and adequate" (121)
Loss of property = revolt (169); kill fathers but don't take patrimony (183)
only protected under a common power; no property in state of war (208); just arrangements determined by common power (215)





Population
Eugenics, selective breeding (91-92).
large states are freer from factions (121)
controlled through fear (183); use cruelty at first then measure out benefits over time (179)
controlled through visible force to keep the people in awe (208 & 220); mathematically engineered (205-207)





Consumption
City of Pigs (p. 72) is unsustainable;
City of Pickles (103) is sustainable.
should be moderate, follow the mean (120)
Don't despoil the conquered (171 ff)
determined by common power (215);





Rural/city
City is self-sufficient; village incomplete
village v. polis (108); polis is most perfect association (109) "self-sufficient" (114)
may be likened to colonizer and colonized (169)






Preferred form of gov't
Organic structure with philosopher-king
serves a common interest (114) citizens rule and are ruled (114) large middle class (120-121)
republican form (188-189); prefers popular support (179 & 193).
"common power" conferred to one man or assembly (221); indivisible (227)





Epistemology
Cave Parable suggests a collapse approach to painful enlightenment
Life is action (111)
through watching exploits of others Moses (172ff) Borgia (174 ff); prophets must be armed (173)
mathematics (207) the proper naming of things (209) through force 215). Covenants w/o swords are but words (220)





Comparative Chart

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